22 Novembre – Thesis defense - Phuong Nguyen

09 h30 Seminar room - Ha Noi Viet Nam

Planet formation seen with ALMA: Gas and dust properties around protoplanetary disks around young low-mass stars.

This thesis presents the analysis of the gas and dust properties of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young low-mass (∼ 1.2 M⊙) triple star GG Tau A. Studying such young multiple stars is mandatory to understand how planets can form and survive in such systems shaped by gravitational disturbances. Gravitational interactions linked to the stellar multiplicity create a large cavity around the stars, the matter (gas and dust) being either orbiting around the stars (inner disks) or beyond the cavity (outer disk). In between, the matter is streaming from the outer disk onto the inner disks to feed up the central stars (and possible planets).
This work makes use of millimeter/sub-millimeter observations of rotational lines of CO (12CO, 13CO and C18O) together with dust continuum maps. While the 12CO emission gives information on the molecular layer close to the disk atmosphere, its less abundant isotopologues (13CO and C18O) bring information much deeper in the molecular layer. The dust mm emission samples the dust disk around the mid-plane.
After introducing the subject, I present the analysis of the morphology of the dust and gas disk. The disk kinematics is derived from the CO analysis. I also present a radiative transfer model of the ring in CO. The subtraction of this model from the original data reveals the weak emission of the molecular gas lying inside the cavity. Thus, I am able to evaluate the properties of the gas inside the cavity, such as the gas dynamics and excitation conditions and the amount of mass in the cavity. The outer disk is in Keplerian rotation until the inner edge of the dense ring at ∼ 160 au. The disk is relatively cold with a CO gas temperature of 25 K and a dust temperature of ∼14 K at 200 au from the central stars. Both CO gas and dust temperatures drop very fast (∝ r−1). The gas dynamics inside the cavity is dominated by Keplerian rotation motion. The contribution of infall motion is evaluated at ∼ 10 − 15% of the Keplerian velocity. The gas temperature inside the cav- ity is of the order of 40 − 80 K. The CO column density and H2 density along the “streamers”, which are close to the binary components (around 0.3′′ − 0.5′′) are of the order of a few 1017 cm−2 and 107 cm−3, respectively. The total mass of gas inside the cavity is ∼ 1.6 × 10−4 M⊙ and the accretion rate is estimated at the level of 6.4 × 10−8 M⊙ yr−1. These new results provide the first quantitative global picture of the physical properties of a protoplanetary disk orbiting around a young low-mass multiple star able to create planets.
I also discuss some chemical properties of the GG Tau A disk. I report the first detection of H2S in a protoplanetary disk, and the detections of DCO+, HCO+ and H13CO+ in the disk of GG Tau A. Our analysis of the observations and its chemical modeling suggest that our understanding of the S chemistry is still incomplete. In GG Tau A, the detection of H2S has been likely possible because the disk is more massive (a factor ∼ 3 − 5) than other disks where H2S was searched. Such a large disk mass makes the system suitable to detect rare molecules and to study cold- chemistry in protoplanetary disks.

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